Lessons from 1918 flu epedemic

First, although the deadly illness is often referred to as the Spanish flu, it likely did not originate in Spain. Although the exact source of the virus has not been found, historians believe that someone from Kansas carried the flu to an Army base there, where it quickly spread, in the spring of 1918. American soldiers then carried it to Europe as they were shipped there during World War I. American soldiers brought a more virulent version of the flu back to America, with large outbreaks in port cities where large numbers of troops were welcomed home.

The first wave, in the spring of 1918, was not particularly lethal with many people recovering within three days. But, in the autumn of 1918, the flu had become much more virulent and the mortality rate associated with the illness during this second wave was staggering. In October alone, 195.000 people in America alone died from the flu.

One of the most important things to know about the 1918 flu is that it was not a one-time event. There were Three waves of the illness, and the second and third waves were more deadly than the first.

A third wave began in Australia in early 1919 and the flu again made its way around the world. This wave was not as deadly as the second, but caused more deaths than the first.

All told, more than 50 million people died from the outbreak and a third of the world’s population was infected.

Another crucial lesson to keep in mind is that physical distancing and stay-at-home orders work, and should be lifted carefully based on data, not political pressure.

Researchers who have studied the 1918 flu conclude that states and cities in the USA that followed public health recommendations about how the disease spread generally had fewer deaths than those that did not. San Francisco, for example, was the first city to order a lockdown and its health director urged residents to wear masks. The city was spared from high death rates in the first and second rounds, but not the third.

Officials in Philadelphia, along with federal officials, downplayed  the severity of the illness. Rather than implement social distancing protocols, as many cities did, Philadelphia held a large victory parade in late September 1918. Within weeks, 4,500 people had died in the city.

“Thinking that the proverbial coast was clear, many communities lifted social distancing measures before the battle was truly over,”

“After weeks of being denied their usual social outlets, people were eager to return to a life of normalcy, and they did so in one giant rush. In city after city, masses lined up for cinemas and theatres, crowds packed into dance halls and cabarets, and throngs flocked to down town shopping districts, often on the very day that the closure orders were lifted.

“The result? Cases and deaths resurged,” !!!

The 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history. It was caused by an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin. Although there is not universal consensus regarding where the virus originated, it spread worldwide during 1918-1919.  In the United States, it was first identified in military personnel in spring 1918. It is estimated that about 500 million people or one-third of the world’s population became infected with this virus. The number of deaths was estimated to be at least 50 million worldwide with about 675,000 occurring in the United States.

Mortality was high in people younger than 5 years old, 20-40 years old, and 65 years and older. The high mortality in healthy people, including those in the 20-40 year age group, was a unique feature of this pandemic. While the 1918 H1N1 virus has been synthesized and evaluated, the properties that made it so devastating are not well understood. With no vaccine to protect against influenza infection and no antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that can be associated with influenza infections, control efforts worldwide were limited to non-pharmaceutical interventions such as isolation, quarantine, good personal hygiene, use of disinfectants, and limitations of public gatherings, which were applied unevenly.


Additional Resources

  1. The Deadliest Flu: The Complete Story of the Discovery and Reconstruction of the 1918 Pandemic Virus
  2. 1918 Pandemic Flu Partner Webinar
  3. Pandemic Influenza Storybook
  4. The Deadly Virus: The Influenza Epidemic of 1918external icon
  5. Pandemic Influenza—Past, Present, Future: Communicating Today Based on the Lessons from the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic pdf icon[1.72 MB, 47 Pages]
  6. Influenza of 1918 (Spanish Flu) and the U.S. Navyexternal icon
  7. Glezen WP. Emerging infections: pandemic influenza. Epidemiol Rev. 1996;18(1):64-76.external icon
  8. Kilbourne ED. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;12(1):9-14.external icon
  9. Taubenberger JK, Morens DM 1918 influenza: the mother of all pandemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:15–22
  10. Belser, JA ; Tumpey, TM. The 1918 flu, 100 years later: Science. 2018 Jan. Vol. 359, Issue 6373, pp. 255external icon
  11. Jester, B; Uyeki, T; Jernigan, D. Readiness for Responding to a Severe Pandemic 100 Years After 1918: American Journal of Epidemiology. 2018, Jan.external icon


Free Millions – a fun & free way to be a lottery winner!

Free Millions is a brand new site which offers you the chance to play the lottery for FREE! Just imagine, winning a share of a huge Euro Millions jackpot without spending a penny… a dream prize, right?

It might sound too good to be true, but Free Millions gives 30 of its members the chance to share their lottery syndicate winnings every week – and all you need to do is check the site daily to see if YOU are one of the lucky members. There’s even a chance you could become a millionaire!

How does Free Millions work?

Free Millions plays at least 500 lottery lines every week, split between the UK LottoUS Powerball and Euro Millions. Each week, 70% of the prize money will be won by up to thirty lucky syndicate members – which could work out at a LOT of prize money!

Like most free daily lottery sites,

Free Millions  is mainly funded by advertising revenue and so encourages members to visit the website every day – but unlike those sites, it offers a much bigger possible jackpot. They also guarantee members a weekly £10 bonus account credit just for checking the numbers every day, which is a great incentive!

How can I join Free Millions?

  • Sign up with your name and email address at www.freemillion.com
  • When joining, you must opt in to receive a daily reminder email from FreeMillions  (after signing up, you can click in the email to unsubscribe at any time – although to be honest, I love a handy reminder)
  • Check your inbox and verify your email address – if you don’t get a verification email, request a second one just in case!

How do I play

At the start of each week, 30 Free Millions members are chosen at random as the winning syndicate – but you must check the Daily Draws page every day for your number and click on it to claim your lottery winnings!

  • Log in every day to check if your membership number appears on the Daily Draws list athttps://freemillions.com/daily-draws – there are 20 numbers published each day at 12 noon.
  • If you spot your membership number and click it, a £20 bonus will be credited to your account
  • You’ll also find out instantly if you’re one of the week’s thirty lottery winners – if you are, your winnings will be immediately credited to your Free Millions account!

In addition, up to 30 of the 140 numbers displayed each week are referrers of the previous week’s winners – if they click, these referrers will instantly win the same amount as their referred friend won the previous week (which could even be a cool million pounds – wow!)

The winning lottery results are published every week and winnings are credited to the members’ Free Millions accounts – this won’t be less than £20, but could be over a £million!

As the Free Millions membership grows, the number of lines played each week will increase – as will the number of weekly winning members – giving members lots more chances to get lucky!

You must check the daily draw results for seven consecutive days to be eligible for a prize – and if you don’t check for 14 days your account will be suspended until you log in again. Just click the link in the daily email reminders they send you!

Earning bonus cash is easy!

It’s super easy to earn a bucketload of bonus cash in your Free Millions account too.

  • Refer a friend bonus – it pays to refer your friends by sharing your unique referral link with them, or on social media. If a friend you referred to Free Millions goes on to win, your number will appear on the Daily Draws page – if you click it, you automatically win the same amount as your friend! After registering, access your own unique referral link at https://freemillions.com/member/referrals/
  • £10 bonus – log in every day for a week (daily from Monday – Sunday) and check all the daily draw numbers, and your account will be credited with £10 bonus cash!

How do I claim my prize cash?

You can transfer money out of your Free Millions account as soon as you’ve had a win, as long as you’ve reached the minimum balance of just £25 (or £50 if you also want to withdraw your bonus cash!). Payment is by PayPal – or for big wins, by bank transfer.


  • If you want to win cash, you must check the site every day – set a daily reminder to check the numbers on your Google Home, Alexa or phone!
  • Looking for your membership number can be a helpful job for the kids to do each day!
  • Share your personal referral link regularly on your social media – remember, if a referred friend wins, you win too!

So what are you waiting for?

Try it now !

and I’ll keep my fingers crossed for your big win (because remember, if you win – I win too, yippee!)

Free millions


Win £25,000 for your contact lens product design!

The Challenge
Are you a student with a great idea that could make the lives of contact lens users easier? We’re offering £25,000 for a winning product design that solves some of the small but meaningful challenges that face contact lens wearers daily.

Whether it’s losing your contacts in a club, carrying lenses without a bag, or fumbling around in the morning looking for lens case, we’re looking for unique and innovative product designs to help improve the day-to-day lives of contact lens wearers.

Maybe you’ve got a trick to help you find contacts in the dark that could be turned into a product? Or a genius idea about how to improve a lens-cleaning routine? Whatever it is, we’re looking for ideas that solve real-world contact lens problems in simple ways.

Who can enter?
The competition is open to all undergraduate or graduate students from any higher education institution, college or university in the UK, Netherlands, Spain or Italy.

  • You can enter as an individual, or as part of a team (max 4 people) and should all attend the same university and study the same subject.*


How to enter

  1. Create a WeTransfer link with your entry.
  2. Submit it via the form.

Entries must be submitted under one of the four following categories:

  • Sports
  • Travel
  • Lifestyle
  • Entertainment

Your entry must include:


What is the problem being solved?


What Was your development process?


The name of the invention

These three important steps can be expressed in a number of ways:
A series of 3-4 A3-sized PDFs detailing the problem, the development process and final design.
A combination of words and images portraying the three stages delivered as a PDF document (max, 3-4 pages). This can include early sketches, photographs and CAD renderings.


18/09/19 Competition opens
10/01/20 Competition closes
17/01/20 Entries judged
21/01/20 Shortlist announced
February 2020 Award ceremony/winner announced

How we’ll be judging your entry

The entries will be judged by a panel of experts, including product designers, academics and industry experts. They will be asking the following questions:

  • Is your idea original?
  • Has it really considered the needs of contact lens wearers?
  • Does it solve a practical, day-to-day problem for an individual with refractive errors?
  • Does it demonstrate commercial awareness, and could it be a viable product in the future?

Good luck and get designing!

Enter now



Kuno Prey

Kuno Prey

Award-winning Italian designer whose products have won a host of international accolades.

On completion of his education in Art and Design, he began operating his own studio. His innate curiosity for design is clearly reflected through his use of interesting materials and technologies. In 1993 Kuno Prey became Professor at the Bauhaus–Universität Weimar, Germany and in 2002, he founded the new Faculty of Design and Art at the Free University of Bolzano, Italy.

Duncan Shotton

Duncan Shotton

British designer, artist and inventor. His work spans product, packaging, graphic and user interface design.

His mission: to create products that engage users emotionally and promote happiness. He wants to ensure people love what they’re doing, wherever they are and whoever they’re there with. His studio focuses on designing happiness into everyday things, using themes such as play, wit and illusion to create tools and objects that converge simple ideas with serious product design principles.

Yorgo Lykouria

Yorgo Lykouria

Creative Director, Yorgo leads the design work from his London base.

With more than 17 years as a creative principal, he co-manages international design studio Rainlight with Susan Grossinger. He is recognised for his work in automotive interiors for Ferrari, and various works for Vitra, Akaba, Alape and Dornbracht. In his early years as an architect working in Airports and high-rises, he became the youngest design director at Helmut Jahn’s office in Chicago.

Michael Kraftman

Michael Kraftman

CEO of Vision Direct, Michael is at the helm of one of Europe’s largest and most trusted online contact lens retailers.

His leadership has taken the company from a small business to an internet giant, disrupting the sector thanks to quality products, fast delivery and exceptional customer service. The UK’s first online contact lens retailer, Vision Direct now has more than 200 staff and operates in several European markets, including the UK, Ireland, Netherlands, Spain, Italy and France.

Marcus Fairs

Marcus Fairs

Founder and editor-in-chief of top design publication Dezeen, Marcus’ work spans across design, architecture, sustainability and innovation.

In 2018, he was named one of London’s 1,000 most influential people by the Evening Standard, recognising his lengthy career driving change in society. Over the years, Marcus received multiple prestigious accolades – notably, he was named BSME’s Business Web Editor of the Year (2013). In 2003, he launched Icon, an international architecture and design magazine that was awarded Monthly Magazine of the Year in 2005 and 2006. His writing has been published on The Guardian, The Independent, Blueprint and more.




























































Fancy winning the use of a top of the range tractor for 12 months free of charge?

Enter today and you could be driving the Tractor of the Year 2018 – best utility the “McCormick X6.4 VT”

Up for grabs is a 12-month lease, fully paid for by McCormick – you could be driving the McCormick X6.4VT in 2020.

Simply enter your details and click next to validate your email address and then answer 8 questions.

THE McCormick X6.4 VT

McCormick has designed and developed the X6.4 series with an ambitious goal: to create a range of highly customizable medium-power tractors to effectively meet the farmers’ needs.

Born out of the extensive on-the-ground experience of Argo Tractors’ engineers, the X6.4 tractor is designed to be truly versatile in any situation. The range offers the choice of two transmissions: Xtrashift with three-stage Powershift (H-M-L) and VT-Drive (CVT). Both tractor versions share the same cab, axles and hydraulic system.

The X6.4 sports the unmistakable modern and aggressive style of McCormick’s latest-generation models, designed to give the tractors a powerful and compact look. The all-new four-post cab is engineered to provide exceptional all-round visibility and superior comfort.

Willow Wood Hospice :: Light Up A Life

By dedicating a light on one of our Christmas trees, not only will it shine brightly in remembrance of a loved one, but your generosity will help care for local people with life-limiting illnesses. All dedications will be inscribed in both of our Books of Memories (online and at Willow Wood Hospice) which are available for viewing from 19 November until the end of the Christmas season.


Remember your loved ones by dedicating a light on one of our Christmas trees.


Willow Wood Hospice would also like to welcome you to attend our Celebration Carol Services, featuring brass bands, choirs, readings and of course the dedication of our Tree of Lights. This year we have two Light Up A Life services in Ashton-under-Lyne and Glossop.
The Glossop service will be held on Tuesday 3 December at 6.00pm in the Market Arcade.
The Tameside service will be held on Sunday 8 December at 2.00pm at the Albion Church, Ashton-under-Lyne.
The hospice Book will be available for viewing at each of the services.
For more information, please email Chris Hayden or Elaine McConnellor call 0161 330 7788.


Image may contain: text


How will my donation help?

Your donation will enable people with serious illness, coming to the end of their lives, receive love and care in beautiful surroundings at what may be challenging times and will enable them to live the lives they have left to the full. The team at Willow Wood Hospice needs your urgent help to continue to develop high quality care for the people of Tameside and Glossop.

Source: Willow Wood Hospice :: Light Up A Life

WIN £50,000!


50th Year Celebration Competition

WIN £50,000!

This year, fischer fixings UK Ltd celebrates its 50th year of business. So far in 2019, we have launched an innovative new product range, incorporated Virtual Reality into our training program, introduced fischer e-Commerce, scheduled our fischer Tour Truck, and many more.

In fischer’s continual efforts to celebrate the success we have achieved in our 50 years, fischer would like to provide our customers an opportunity to share in our success. This competition embraces accomplishment of the foundation that fischer created with the fischer Nylon S Plug.

And who wouldn’t want a chance to win £50,000?! If you can correctly guess the answer to the question below, this could be you!


How many fischer S Plugs have been sold in the years 1969-2018?


Win a 23-night holiday to Western Australia worth £7,000 | The Caravan Club


Have you ever dreamed of visiting Australia’s magnificent Western Coast?

Home to the world-renowned Margaret River wine region, the ancient region of Kimberley, romantic beach towns like Broome and Australia’s sunniest capital city, Perth, Western Australia boasts countless naturally beautiful and unique places to visit.

Whether you choose to explore the state’s wild and rugged coastline, relax on endless stretches of stunning, white-sand beaches or road trip along the Gibb River Road, you’re guaranteed an unforgettable experience. Make your dreams come true by entering our competition for your chance to win a trip of a lifetime to Western Australia!

The 23-night motorhome holiday for two includes:

✔ International return flights from the UK to Australia

✔ Airport and motorhome depot transfers

✔ 3 nights in a centrally located 4-star hotel in Perth (breakfast included)

✔ Perth city tour and Rottnest Island tour (lunch included)

✔ 17 nights on pre-booked campsites including electric hook up

Maui Ultima 2 berth motorhome hire for 18 days


This prize is sponsored by
maui logo




Source: Win a holiday to Australia | The Caravan Club

Win A Tour for 2 worth upto £3,600


Stop daydreaming about your next trip and enter to win one instead! Enter before 31 July, 2019 for a chance to spin the compass and win a tour for two to Japan, Bali, Sri Lanka, or Australia with Intro Travel!
Just don’t forget the sunscreen and you’ll be ready for some serious fun in the sun alongside a travel buddy of your choosing.
Terms & Conditions:
This contest allows travellers to enter for a chance to win two seats on one of the trips shown after entering the contest. To enter this contest entrants must enter a valid email address into the field provided on https://www.tourradar.com/travel/fun-in-the-sun and choose their preferred destination. The contest prize does not include any flights or means of transportation other than what is provided by the tour operator and is mentioned in the trip notes. Please note that this prize is non-transferable, has no redeemable cash value and is open to all travellers up to 55 years old. No purchase or payment is necessary in order to enter.

The contest starts on July 10th, 2019 and ends on July 31st, 2019. The winner will be announced a week after the contest ends. Good luck!
Prize T&Cs:
Book by: November 7th, 2019
Travel by: Valid for departures up to December 31st, 2019